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Keeping an excellent physical fitness level is something we should all aspire to do, but deciding what fitness means can be challenging. The Department of Health and Human Services of the United States defines physical fitness as a collection of characteristics that people have or accomplish that is linked to the ability to perform physical activity.

This classification goes beyond being capable of lifting heavy weights or running fast. These attributes, despite being significant, only address a minor aspect of fitness. Koleolat has compiled this article to describe five major physical health components.

Fitness facts

  • Certain illnesses can be prevented by incorporating physical fitness
  • With workout, our body composition can be altered without affecting weight
  • There is an increase in muscle strength by neural changes and fiber hypertrophy
  • A variety of medical complaints can be alleviated by getting flexible through stretching

A person’s physical fitness greatly depends on how well they invest in the aspect of staying healthy.

Fitness includes the following:

  • Muscular endurance
  • Muscular strength
  • Flexibility
  • Body composition
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness

You can tell if someone is physically fit by determining how well they perform in each component. Here we will look at them all individually.

Cardiorespiratory performance

Cardiorespiratory endurance shows how well our body can supply fuel through the circulatory and respiratory systems during physical activity. Activities that help enhance cardiorespiratory endurance are those that, over a prolonged time, cause an elevated heart rate.

These activities include:

  • Cycling
  • Swimming
  • Jogging
  • Brisk walking

In terms of cardiorespiratory stamina, individuals who actively engage in these activities are more likely to be physically healthy. It is necessary to start these routines and gradually maximize the intensity slowly.

In a variety of ways, exercise increases cardiorespiratory stamina. The heart muscle becomes strengthened so that more blood is pumped with each heartbeat. Additionally, smaller arteries can grow inside the muscle tissue, which can increase blood flow when needed.

Fitness and heart health

Continuous training can cause the heart to change and maximize its efficiency. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown how different types of activities can change the heart in several ways.

All kinds of exercise increase the heart’s total size, but there are significant variations between endurance athletes, such as rowers, and strength athletes, such as football players. The hearts of endurance athletes show expanded left and right ventricles, while strength athletes, particularly the left ventricle, show thickening of their heart wall.

Fitness and lung health

The respiratory system does not adapt to the same degree, even though the heart slowly improves over time. The lungs’ function does not alter significantly, but the lungs’ oxygen is utilized more efficiently.

Exercise typically helps the body to become more successful in taking and distributing oxygen efficiently. This enhancement improves stamina and overall health over time. Aerobic exercise is prescribed 3-5 days a week for 30-60 mins by the American College of Sports Medicine, at a force that keeps the heart rate at 65-85% of the maximum heart rate.

Fitness and cardiorespiratory

It has been found that cardiorespiratory fitness helps to minimize the risk of health complications, including:

  • Stroke
  • Heart disease
  • Lung cancer
  • Type 2 diabetes


Muscle strength is described by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as “the capacity of the muscle to exert force during an operation.”

There are a variety of methods for measuring muscular strength. Basically, the easiest way is to raise or push something of a fixed weight in a specified position and compare the outcomes against any given population.

Generally, strength can be increased if a muscle is exercised consistently and regularly. There are different ways of working the muscles through vigorous exercise, and something that works until a muscle is exhausted will improve muscle strength.

Fitness and muscle structure

Muscles are made up of elongated cells, and each muscle cell carries contractile proteins – myosin and actin – that strengthen the muscle. These fibers can contract together to create a so-called power stroke. The overall force depends on the number of units that contract together.

To build muscle, the following conditions must be met:

  • Muscles should be exercised frequently
  • Enough protein must be absorbed

Muscle building’s exact mechanism is not well understood, but the basic concepts are well known. Exercise allows for the expansion of muscle cells, which can increase the development of actin and myosin.

Untrained muscles can have fibers firing asynchronously. They learn to fire together uniformly during fitness programs, hence, maximizing power production. The body usually protects the muscles from over-exerting themselves and getting hurt. As the muscle is stressed, the body begins to disinhibit the muscles’ activation, which allows it to exercise more strength.


Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to continue to exert force without tiring. Strength training develops bigger muscles, and endurance training does not inherently produce larger muscle size.

This is because the body focuses more on the cardiovascular system, ensuring that the muscles receive the oxygenated blood they need to keep working. Another noticeable change in the muscles that are particularly trained for endurance includes several muscle tissue types- slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers.

  • Slow-twitch fibers: This is perfect for endurance routines, and people who engage in this type can continue for a long time without getting tired
  • Fast-twitch fibers: This type of fiber contracts and gets tired quickly. More energy is used, whitish and do not need blood to function

Different exercises will encourage slow-twitch fibers, fast-twitch fibers, or both. Sprinters will have relatively faster twitch fibers, while a long-distance runner will have slower twitch fibers.

Body composition

The body’s composition measures the relative amounts of water, muscle, bone, and fat. A person can maintain the same weight, but each of the components that make up the body can change dramatically. For example, individuals with a high muscle ratio weigh more than people with less muscle with the same waist and height circumference.

These body fat content measurements were cataloged from high-level sportswomen and men in various disciplines:

  • Basketball: men 9% and women 13%
  • Cross-country skiing: men 5% and women 11%
  • Golf: men 13% and women 16%
  • Canoeing/Kayaking: men 13% and women 22%
  • Swimming: men 12% and women 19%
  • 100, 200, and 400-meter racers: men 6.5% and women 14%
  • Boxing: men 7%
  • Wrestling: men 8%

Calculating the body’s composition

Correctly calculating the body’s composition can be difficult sometimes. One sure way to get an accurate reading includes the following methods:

Weight can be measured using a regular scale; then, the volume is measured by submerging a person in the water to calculate the displacement. Various radiometric tests and chemicals can determine the proportions of protein, water, and mineral in the body. The densities of protein, water, mineral, and fat are either estimated or measured.

The figures are then inputed into the following equation:

1/Db = w/Dw + f/Df + p/Dp + m/Dm

Db = overall body density,

w = proportion of water

f = proportion of fat

p = proportion of protein

m = proportion of mineral

Dw = density of water

Df = density of fat

Dp = density of protein

Dm = density of mineral

Other methods can include air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, MRI and CT, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and ultrasound.

Fitness and flexibility

Flexibility is the range of movement through a joint. This is essential because it helps to improve the ability to connect movements smoothly and prevent injuries. Flexibility is distinct to each joint and depends on some variables such as ligaments and tendons’ tightness.

Flexibility can be increased through various activities that are designed to stretch joints, tendons, and ligaments. The three types of  workouts that are used to increase flexibility includes:

  • Dynamic stretching: This form of flexibility is used in traditional “ warming up ” exercises to prepare the body for physical activity.
  • Static-active stretching: Maintaining a part of the body in a stretched stance and holding the position for a while. An example is the splits.
  • Ballistic stretching: This is only used after warmup, and it involves stretching in different positions.

There are several ways to improve flexibility, and a daily stretching routine can be the most efficient way of getting whole-body flexibility.


Generally, fitness means some different to different people. The advice is to engage in regular exercise to help keep you physically fit. The more exercise you engage in, the healthier you tend to be.


What does being physically fit mean? – medicalnewstoday

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